The sensor application on numerical control machine tool
- source:ACHER CNC Machining
The applied pulse coder of 1 pulse coder is a kind of angular displacement (rotate speed) sensor, it can turn mechanical corner into electric pulse. Pulse coder can be divided for contact and photoelectricity type, electromagnetism type 3 kinds, among them, photoelectricity type application is more. In the graph 1 in, x axis and ministry of Z axis end match glazed report coder respectively, use at angular displacement to measure measure with the number fast, angular displacement can be mirrorred secondhand through guide screw pitch procrastinate board or the linear displacement of tool carrier. Graph 1 4.
The application of 2 linear grating is linear the transmission that grating is benefit consumed and reflection phenomenon are made and become, commonly used measure at displacement, resolution is higher, measure precision taller than photoelectricity coder, suit to be measured at trends. In feed drive, grating feet is fixed go up in lathe bed, signal mirrorred the pulse that its produce to procrastinate directly board real position. Consumed bar detects the servo of workbench position is system of full closed-loop control. 4.
3 rotate the application of transformer rotates transformer is voltage of a kind of output and angular displacement quantity the inductive type electrical micro-machine that concerns into successive function. Rotate transformer is comprised by stator and rotor, specific for, it is comprised by winding of two a core, stator and two rotor winding, its former, auxiliary winding is placed respectively go up in stator, rotor, the corner of the electromagnetism coupling degree between former, auxiliary winding and rotor is concerned. 4.
The mutual inductance that uses winding of two flat look differs along with the position and metabolic principle makes the applied induction synchronized of 4 inductions synchronized. Its function is become angle or linear displacement change inductive electromotive force phasic or amplitude, usable will measure linear or corner displacement. By its the structure can be divided mix for straight formula rotate type two kinds. Synchronized of straight formula induction by scale and slide two parts are comprised, scale installation is on machine tool lathe bed, slide is installed go up at mobile component, move together along with workbench; Rotate stator of type induction synchronized is fixed disc, rotor is rotational disc. Inductive synchronized has capacity of taller precision and resolution, interference rejection strong, service life is long, safeguard displacement of simple, Sunday run to measure, craft sex good, cost is inferior wait for an advantage. Synchronized of straight formula induction is applied at big displacement static state and trends to measure widely at present in, use at 3 coordinate to measure machine tool of numerical control of machine, programmed control, high accuracy for example heavy-duty machine tool and machining center measurement unit. Rotate the revolving stage that type induction synchronized is used at machine tool and instrument widely and in systems of all sorts of circumgyrate servo control. Of 5 positions detect positional sensor is usable will detect the position, reflect the switch of some kind of condition, differ with displacement sensor. Positional sensor has contact and be close to type two kinds. 5.
Of the applied contact sensor of 1 contact sensor touch a head by extruding of two objects contact movement, commonly sensor of position of type of matrix of journey switch, 2 dimension waits. Journey switch structure simple, movement reliable, price is low. It is when a certain object in athletic process, when coming up against journey switch, its interior strikes a conference action, finish control thereby, like direction of axis of the X in machining center, Y, Z two end part of journey switch, can control mobile limits. Sensor of position of type of 2 dimension matrix is installed at manipulator palm inside, use at detecting oneself and the osculatory position of a certain object. 5.
The 2 application that are close to switch are close to switch is to point to when to be close to set to be apart from with its when the object, can be given out " movement " the switch of signal, it need not be contacted directly with the object. Be close to switch to have a lot of sort, basically have from transformer of feeling type, differential type of type, electric vortex flow, capacitance type, dry spring is in charge of, Huo Er type. The application that is close to switch to go up in numerical control machine tool basically is tool carrier the control that pick a knife, workbench journey control, oil cylinder and control of cylinder piston journey. In control of knife of tool carrier choosing, if the graph is shown 2 times, from left to 4 right cam and be close to SQ1 of switch SQ4 ～ to answer relatively, comprise encode of 4 binary systems, each encode is corresponding a knife, be like 0110 correspondence 6 knives; Be close to switch SQ5 to be used at odd even desired result, make mistake in order to decrease. Tool carrier every had turned a knife, issue a signal, the knife of this signal and numerical control system the instruction undertakes comparative, the knife when tool carrier signal and instruction knife when signal conform to, express to choose a knife to finish. Graph sensor of 2 suddenly Er is the sensor that uses suddenly Er phenomenon to be made. In waiting for germanium semiconductor park magnetic field, connect in a direction with electric current when, can appear on perpendicular direction voltage, this is suddenly Er phenomenon. Will small magnet is fixed go up in athletic component, when the component stands by suddenly Er component, produce suddenly Er phenomenon, judge an object to whether reach the designated position thereby. Of 6 speed detect speed sensor is a kind of sensor that becomes rate change telegraphic name, can detect already linear speed, also can detect angular velocity, have commonly usedly measure fast dynamo and pulse coder. Measure fast the characteristic that the dynamo has is: (1) output voltage and rotate speed concern strictly into linear; (2) the slope that output voltage and rotate speed compare is big. Can divide two kinds into communication and dc. Pulse coder is in when passing an unit angular displacement, produce a pulse, deserve to be able to detect with timer an angular velocity. In numerical control machine tool, speed sensor is used at the speed of unit of servo of numerical control system to detect commonly. Of 7 pressure detect pressure sensor is a kind of sensor that becomes pressure change telegraphic name. According to working principle, can divide to press sensor of electric type sensor, the type that control block and capacitance type sensor. It is to detect the floorboard of energy of the active force between all material such as gas, liquid, solid, what also include to measure prep above atmosphere is manometric and measure the vacuum gauge under atmosphere. The capacitance of capacitance type pressure sensor is by electrode area and two electrode the distance between is decided, because of sensitivity good, pressure measures stability of tall, temperature Cheng is big waited for a characteristic to get developing quickly of late. In numerical control machine tool, can undertake detecting to work clamping force with it, when clamping force is less than set to be worth, can bring about workpiece to become loose, the system is given out call the police, stop a knife. Additional, usable still pressure sensor detects the change of force of lathe tool cutting. Moreover, it still is in lubricant system, hydraulic pressure system, baric system is used to detect oil path or the pressure in enraging a road, when oil path or the pressure in enraging a road are worth under set, its contact is met movement, send numerical control the system fault signal. Of 8 temperature detect temperature sensor is a kind of unit that temperature discretion change becomes resistance size or other telecommunication name one kind. Commonly the thermal resistance sensor that gives priority to with platinic, copper, thermal resistor sensor that gives priority to with semiconductor material and thermocouple sensor wait. On numerical control machine tool, temperature sensor is used detect temperature undertakes temperature is compensated thereby or overheat is protected. In machining a process, the metropolis such as the shift of the whirl of electromotor, mobile component, cutting produces quantity of heat, and temperature distributings inhomogenous, cause difference in temperature, make numerical control machine tool produces heat to be out of shape, influence spare parts machines precision, to avoid the effect that temperature produces, can go up in numerical control machine tool sensor of temperature of certain place furnish, experience temperature signal and change into telegraphic date to give numerical control the system, undertake temperature is compensated. In addition, the place that needs overheat protection waits in electromotor, should bury set temperature sensor, through numerical control the system undertakes overheat call the police when overheat. Cutting tool of monitoring of tatty of 9 cutting tool wears away to be able to affect the dimension precision of workpiece and exterior surface roughness to certain level, accordingly, wear away to cutting tool should undertake monitoring. When cutting tool wears away, bear of electromotor of machine tool main shaft increases, the electric current of electromotor and voltage also can change, power is changed subsequently, power change can detect through suddenly Er sensor. Power changes certain level, numerical control system issues alarm signal, engine quits movement, right now, should undertake cutting tool is adjusted in time or change. The sensor that above of 10 last words introduces is in the application on numerical control machine tool is current condition, but the development as sensor and numerical control machine tool, some sensor will be washed out, if rotate transformer, and new sensor will appear ceaselessly, can make numerical control machine tool more perfect, suit oneself stronger. CNC Milling CNC Machining